in the Cardigan Welsh Corgi

The list that is shown here can be found on the internet. The disorders that are mentioned in this list are compiled
from the book ''Control of Canine Genetic Diseases', by George A. Padgett DVM, published in 1998.
In the Cardigan Welsh Corgi 34 known and documented inherited defects are listed. This may seem a lot but
looking at some other breeds as the Poodle, having 145 defects and the American Cocker, having 116 defects,
it isnít. Mixed breeds top the list of inherited defects at 220, due to their varied ancestries.
Ofcourse this list cannot be definitive, additional problems known to occur and diseases still unknown will follow
eventually. With this article I would like to provide information about the disorders that can be found in Cardigans.
Please note that most of these disorders were only found a few times and are actually very rare in this breed. Not all
diseases cause an equal discomfort to the breed. As you can see all disorders show up at a different time.
DM (nr.13) for example might show up over 9 years of age if a dog has two defect genes, might, some dogs with two
defect genes die at the age of 15 without having had the disorder. Therefore  we should ask ourselves how important
it is to us to eliminate this disorder completely as we will decrease our genepool and that might cause bigger
problems in the end.
Recessive disorders are the most difficult to eliminate since a majority of them only show up until the dog is older or
past breeding age. A recessive gene is not clearly visible in a healthy, unaffected dog who might carry just one copy
of the gene. It will only be discovered when two dogs who have the same recessive gene are mated and produce one
or more puppies with two copies of the gene and this is when a problem occurs. Some problems with a recessive
gene like PRA now have a genetic test to determine the carrier status.
The polygenetic disorders are difficult to map, we know that several genes have to  be present in order for a
polygenetic disorder to show up.
Sharing information about carrier status for recessive genes is the most important part of the breeding process.
Sadly not many breeder dare to speak open about defects that occur in their breeding as other, very short sighted,
breeders will attack and condemn them for having had defects in their dogs.
Breeding or having dogs comes with health issues, no breeder and no owner will be safe from them. Breeders who
say that they donít have any health problems are not to be trusted. We should reward the breeders who dare to speak
out in the open about their health issues, so that they will continue to do so!

Meaning of the used abbreviations:


  D:    Dominant     U:   still Undetermined
  R:    Recessive     under
  P:    Polygenetic   >   over
  XR:   Sex linked Recessive   =   equal to age at onset


System Affected, Disease: Symptoms Type

Age of Onset

1 Behavioral, Excessive Aggression: Extreme forcefulness with other animals and/or people U < 3/Varies
2 Endocrine, Hypothyroidism: Immune destruction of thyroid, lethargy, weight gain, dermatitis, alopecia U < 2
3 Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI): Weight loss & cronic diarrhea, variable severity R < 1
4 Hematopoietic, Methemoglobinemia: Lethargy, weakness, tachypnea, cyanosis R < 6mos
5 Hematopoietic, Von Willebrand's: Reduced Factor VIII in blood, prolonged bleeding time R < 1
6 Heart/Vascular, Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Dyspnea, excersize intolerance, cough, heart sounds muffled U < 6
7 Integumentary, Bullous Pemphigoid: Vesicular & bullous ulcers, affect mouth, axillae, groin or foot U Varies
8 Integumentary, Ehlers Danlos Syndrome: Loose, too thin, overelastic skin that tears easily D < 10wks
9 Integumentary, Onychodystrophy: Loss of nails on one or more paws resulting in secondary infection U < 5
10 Integumentary, Pemphigus Vulgaris: Erosive/ulcerative areas, groin, axillae, mucocutaneous junctures U < 2
11 Integumentary, Perineal Hernia: Difficulty defecating & swelling lateral to anus U < 8
12 Pancreas, Pancreatic Hypoplasia: Weight loss, diarrhea, correctable with endocrine supplement R < 1
13 Neurologic, Ceroid: Lipofuscinosis (ATP C-Storage) Night blindness, confusion, aggression, ataxia R < 1
14 Neurologic, Degenerative Myelopathy: progressive paralysis due to spinal cord degeneration R > 1
15 Neurologic, Epilepsy: Seizures, often seasonal, can be progressive disorder, may not respond to treatment U > 1
16 Neurologic, Sensory Ganglioradiculitis: Progressive disorder, loss of reflexes, hearing, voice, head tilt U < 7
17 Ocular, Cataracts: Late onset or undefined, may result in partial or complete blindness U Varies
18 Ocular, CPRA: Centralized PRA, central vision loss, peripheral ok, some dogs may retain vision U < 2
19 Ocular, Corneal Erosion Syndrome: Sudden ocular pain due to corneal ulcers U < 6
20 Ocular, Dermoid: Patch of skin occurs on cornea U < 1
21 Ocular, Entropion: Eyelid rolls inward causing eyelashes to rub eyeball U < 1
22 Ocular, Glaucoma: increases pressure in the globe of eyeball, undetermined causes U < 3
23 Ocular, Lens Luxation: Partial or complete dislocation of lens U < 1
24 Ocular, PPM, PHPV or PHTVL: Blood vessels in anterior eye chamber regress late or fail to regress normally U < 3mos
25 Ocular, PRA: Progressive Retinal Atrophy: degeneration of retinal cells, complete blindness occurs R < 1/varies
26 Ocular, Retinal Dysplasia (Folds): Abnormal folds in retina U < 1
27 Ocular, Retinal Dysplasia (Geographic Detachment): Abnormal development & detachment of retina R < 1
28 Skeletal, Cleft lip/palate : Fissure in roof of mouth and/or lip, may occur together or seperately P/U birth
29 Skeletal, Hip Dysplasia: Abnormal formation of the hip socket P < 2
30 Skeletal, Intervertebral Disk Disease (IDD): Rupture of vertebral discs, can result in paralysis U > 1
31 Skeletal, Luxating Patella: Patella (kneecap) dislocates due to poor or improper structural development P < 1
32 Skeletal, Premature Closing of the Radius: Causes bowing of front legs, may also cause bone misalignment U < 1
33 Urinary, Cystinuria: Excessive cystine in urine, bladder stones XR < 1
34 Urinary, Ectopic Ureters: Ureters do not attach to bladder U birth
  Additional undocumented health problems, information mainly from Cardi related sources.
# System Affected, Disease: Symptoms Type Age of Onset
1 Alimentary, Gastric Dilation: Volvulus (Bloat, Gastric Tortion): distention, unproductive vomiting, often fatal U < 7
2 Deafness, Dominant Merle gene linked: occurs in some offspring of merle to merle breedings D < 3mos
3 Heart/Vascular, Patent Ductus Ateriosis (PDA): Failure of a fetal vessel in the heart to close after birth, heart murmer P birth
4 Immune, Atopic Dermatitis: allergic dermatitis, may be seasonal U < 1
5 Immune, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Immune system attacks blood cells, anemia, possible death U < 4
6 Immune, Demodicosis: localized. Generalized Demodicosis is thought to be inherited U < 1
7 Integumentary, Achondroplastic Joint Laxity: Puppies late getting on feet and walking, may include CHD R/U < 3mos
8 Integumentary, Inguinal Hernia: outpouching of skin in inguinal ring (stomach inside flank), may contain viscera R < 6mos
11 Ocular, Convergent/Divergent Strabismus: one or both eyes turn inward or outward, (crossed eyes) U < 1
12 Reproductive, Cryptorchidism: one or both testicles absent due to retention in abdomen or inguinal region R/U < 3 mos
13 Reproductive, Dystocia: difficulty whelping for number of reasons, uterine inertia, oversized pup, narrow pelvis, etc. U giving birth
14 Reproductive, Resorbtion of Litter: may occur any time during pregnancy, may or may not be inherited U Pregnancy
15 Reproductive, Anasarca ('water' or 'walrus' puppy): puppy retains water making it oversized, usually requires c:section. U < birth
16 Skeletal, Brachury: much shorter than expected tail length R < 6 mos
17 Skeletal, Anury: completely absent tail R birth
18 Skeletal, Crooked Tail: abnormal bend/kink in tail, minor show fault but may be linked to other spinal problems U < 3 mos
19 Skeletal, Dewclaws, hind: extra toes may appear on one or both hind feet, show fault only D birth
20 Skeletal, Luxation of carpus: Knuckling over of one or both front legs, varies in severity U < 1
21 Skeletal, Osteochondritis Dessicans (FCP:OCD): affecting elbow, known in Pembroke Welsh Corgis P < 1 (Ī 7: 10 mos)
22 Skeletal, Overshot: upper jaw extends beyond lower jaw, tooth misalignment, show fault U < 1
23 Skeletal, Retained Desciduous teeth: one or more 'baby' teeth retained/lost very late, affects tooth alignment U < 1
24 Skeletal, Undershot: lower jaw level with or protrudes beyond upper jaw, tooth misalignment, show fault P < 1